Dopamine helps us feel love and pleasure. It's part of our drive and reward pathway. Without it, life would be very bland. In fact, we may not even be alive since we would have no desire to eat or meet people or do anything. Dopamine gives us an intensely pleasurable feeling. When we are in love, we are flooded with dopamine. It's a wonderful little molecule!
Pathpedia.com is a comprehensive web-based resource on human anatomical, clinical, and experimental pathology. The site serves a target audience including pathologists, pathologists-in-training, laboratory professionals, clinicians, medical scientists, and medical students. The site can also be useful to general public who want to learn about human pathology and medical laboratory tests.
Laboratory data influence 70% of medical diagnoses. This fact indicates that the laboratory is a major aid to the clinicians who have requested the tests. Furthermore, it means that the laboratory must try to reach the goal of zero defects.
The testing process has been divided into three major parts (pre-, intra- and post-analytical), each with a few aspects that can be identified and, in many cases, quantified. Thus, the testing process lends itself to designing a systematic approach to error detection and correction, hopefully before data are reported. While some schemes include "choosing the test" as part of the pre-analytical phase, this article will not include it.
Clinical Laboratory Professionals Developed Bar Code Label Standard
AUTO12-A, the CLSI standard for bar code specimen labels, was developed by advisors from the clinical laboratory industry and is published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in Wayne, Pennsylvania. Labs that have already complied with this standard report that compliance has significantly improved specimen tracking.
Clinical laboratories in USA have about nine months to comply with a new standard for bar code labels. The deadline for compliance to AUTO12-A, Specimen Labels: Content and Location, Fonts, and Label Orientation, is April 29, 2014.
Koehler illumination is a microscope technique that provides superior control over the light rays during brightfield microscopy by aligning and focusing the microscope, ensuring the best resolution and contrast, as well as a bright, evenly illuminated background for your images. Koehler illumination is critical for the following advanced contrasting techniques: Phase contrast, Varel contrast, Hoffman Modulation, PlasDIC and DIC. Prior to setting up and aligning the advanced contrasting components, the microscope's Koehler illumination must be aligned.
Scottish scientists have been given the go-ahead for the world’s first trials in humans of synthetic blood, The Scotsman can reveal.
Researchers based at the Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine (SCRM) in Edinburgh hope to use stem cells to manufacture blood on an industrial scale to help end shortages and prevent infections being passed on in donations.
"Maybe a few cells will do" - New palm-sized microarray grows 1,200 individual cultures.
Microarray developed by Srinivasan et al. and it could enable faster, more efficient drug discovery, say the authors who created the technology in their paper in mBio this week. Scientists at the University of Texas at San Antonio and the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research at Fort Sam Houston have developed a microarray platform for culturing fungal biofilms, and validated one potential application of the technology to identify new drugs effective against Candida albicans biofilms. The nano-scale platform technology could one day be used for rapid drug discovery for treatment of any number of fungal or bacterial infections, according to the authors, or even as a rapid clinical test to identify antibiotic drugs that will be effective against a particular infection.
Scientists from Australia and the United States bring new insights to our understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the genome, one of the biggest challenges currently facing the fields of genomics and genetics. Their findings are published in Nature Genetics online.
Roughly 3 metres of DNA is tightly folded into the nucleus of every cell in our body. This folding allows some genes to be ‘expressed’, or activated, while excluding others.
In their Nature Medicine article, Dr. Hussain and colleagues note that "overproduction of lipoproteins, a process that is dependent on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), can contribute to hyperlipidemia." They demonstrate that microRNA-30c (miR-30c), a genetic regulator, interacts with MTP and induces its degradation, leading to reductions in MTP activity, the production of lipoproteins, plasma lipids, and atherosclerosis. This molecule also reduces lipid synthesis independently of MTP thereby avoiding complications associated with drug therapies aimed at lowering lipoprotein production.
Two diabetes-related autoantibodies were found to be the strongest indicators of diabetes risk. The authors said that type 1 diabetes usually has a "preclinical phase that can be identified by the presence of autoantibodies to antigens of the pancreatic beta cells." Data gathered from three different studies, which included a total of 13377 children, were used in the analysis. At the 10-year follow-up, an overwhelming 70 percent of the children with multiple islet autoantibodies developed type 1 diabetes, compared to 15 percent among those with just one autoantibody.
Pyrazinamide (PZA) -- a frontline tuberculosis (TB) drug -- kills dormant persister bacteria and plays a critical role in shortening TB therapy. PZA is used for treating both drug-susceptible and multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) but resistance to PZA occurs frequently and can compromise treatment.
A recent study, led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, has identified a new mechanism for PZA-resistance, which provides new insight into the how this mysterious drug works. The study is available online June 12 in the journal Emerging Microbes and Infections.
A team of scientists from the University of Maryland School of Medicine has found the strongest evidence yet that bacteria occasionally transfer their genes into human genomes, finding bacterial DNA sequences in about a third of healthy human genomes and in a far greater percentage of cancer cells. The results, published today (20 June) in PLOS Computational Biology, suggest that gene transfer from bacteria to humans is not only possible, but also somehow linked to over-proliferation: either cancer cells are prone to these intrusions or the incoming bacterial genes help to kick-start the transformation from healthy cells into cancerous ones.
Read more: Bacterial DNA in Human Genomes
When working with samples between 2 and 5 mL, researchers often have no choice but to use tubes that are really designed for larger volumes, typically 15 mL conical screw cap tubes. The new Eppendorf Tube 5.0 mL now provides the "missing link" for such samples, delivering a high-quality solution for volumes up to 5 mL.
Microbial Art is a collection of unique artworks created using living bacteria, fungi, and protists. We are pleased to present this site as an example of the exciting interface between art and science. We also consider this an excellent opportunity to showcase the beauty of organisms that usually go unseen and therefore are often feared (sometimes rightly so) or ignored. We invite you to browse the image galleries and to find out more about the creators of these works — both human and microbial.
A long-awaited report on a large and possibly still ongoing outbreak of MERS coronavirus in Saudi Arabia reveals the virus spreads easily within hospitals, at one point passing in a person-to-person chain that encompassed at least five generations of spread.
The study, co-written by Toronto SARS expert Dr. Allison McGeer, also hints there may have been a superspreader in this outbreak, with one person infecting at least seven others.
Silver has been shown to make bacteria more susceptible to antibiotics. Silver weakens bacterial cell membranes and induces a chain reaction which makes them vulnerable to other chemicals.
Silver has been known to have antimicrobial properties for centuries. Foe example, the the Phonecians stored water and other liquids in silver coated bottles to discourage contamination by microbes; and silver became commonly used in medical treatments, such as those of wounded soldiers in World War I, to deter microbial growth.
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin (MPIIB) now show that Chlamydia infections can cause mutations in the host DNA by overriding the normal mechanisms by which their host prevents unregulated growth of genetically damaged cells that pave the way for the development of cancer.
As laboratorians, we are well aware of many horror medical and legal
stories regarding mislabeling lab specimens. The American Society for
Healthcare Risk Management (ASHRM), the College of American Pathologists
(CAP), The Joint Commission and other healthcare oversight entities
have addressed and provided several solutions (e.g., National Patient
Safety Goals) to remedy the problem. Specimen mislabeling is generally
thought to occur in cases where the identity label of the donor is being
taped to another donor's specimen container. Mislabeling also occurs in
cases when the donors' names are mixed up on blood transfusions or drug
urinalysis screenings. Other lab specimen mislabels also occur, such as
when the wrong word is affixed to the wrong type of specimen (e.g.,
Bacterial infections kill tens of thousands of North Americans every year. Addressing the fact it can take days to find out which bacteria are behind the infections and even longer to establish exactly which drugs will work, may offer a way to reduce these deaths. Now according to a new study, a chip that identifies bacteria in minutes promises to slash those timescales. And not only does the chip identify the specific pathogen, it can also tell which drugs it is resistant to, say researchers from the University of Toronto (U of T) in Canada.
Evolving technologies and market forces reveal that digital pathology is poised to radically affect the daily workflow and activities of pathologists and diagnostic laboratories
Attracted by the prospect of improved connectivity and reduced overall healthcare costs, most laboratories are anticipated to switch over to digital pathology systems over the next 7-8 years.
Read more: Large-Scale Switch to Digital Pathology Systems
Two “gene machines” that have been installed at a children’s hospital will cut the time it takes to scan for rare and inherited genetic disorders from a year to just days, doctors have said.
The £500,000 Next Generation Sequencers at The Children’s Hospital, Sheffield, are different from others around the UK because they are also combined with the latest robotic technology to help spot faulty genes as early as possible.
1. When you talk about monoclonal immunoglobulin, is it always exactly the same antibody for only one antigen? Or is it just the same type ( IgG kappa, IgM kappa, etc..) but not exactly the same same same?
2. Why is this proliferation bad for the body? How does it “kill” it?
3. What is the difference between myeloma and multiple myeloma? Is it the same?
View answers and read more: More student questions about multiple myeloma
No more twisting and reaching for tubes or losing them in the patient's bed! With Tube Jockey you're free to draw the patient in the safest, most convenient, and most organized position possible. Holds both 13-16mm tubes! Now, no matter where you go to draw, you'll always have a safe place to put your tubes and they'll always be in full view.
This testing is used to detect the abnormal promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha or PML-RARA gene sequence. It is used to help diagnose acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in which the PML-RARA gene sequence is present, to guide treatment, to monitor response to treatment, and to monitor for disease recurrence.
Testing is ordered when a doctor suspects that a person has APL. Initial testing may be indicated when a person has abnormal findings on a CBC and/or blood smear such as an increased or decreased number of white blood cells, decreased platelets, decreased red blood cells, and abnormal, immature white blood cells called promyelocytes, and nonspecific symptoms that may be related to leukemia such as:
Fatigue or weakness
Pale skin (pallor)
Unexplained weight loss
Joint or bone pain and/or an enlarged spleen
Excessive bleeding, bruising, or inappropriate blood clotting
A newfound genetic marker promises to better predict warfarin dose in African-Americans, according to a study published online in The Lancet. If confirmed in further studies, the finding may help to avert more of the bleeds and blood clots that come when a patient's starting dose misses the drug's narrow safety window.
For all its ubiquity in the lab, proper QC isn't easy. Even though every laboratory has to perform Quality Control, that hasn't made the task any simpler. It still relies on the right mean, the right SD, the right control limits, the right rules and numbers of control measurements, and the right interpretation of control data points. If you get one part of this system wrong, it can throw off the correct implementation.
Here's an example that was recently published showing the difficulties and challenges of performing proper QC.
Consequences of a missed lab error: Would your lab have caught this?
As you are aware, the IFCC confers several distinguished awards to scientists and clinicians who work in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine or related disciplines. These triennial awards are the highest honours that our federation can bestow to colleagues worldwide in recognition of their outstanding achievements, to publicize their exceptional research and other contributions that have improved medical and healthcare, and to stimulate and encourage other scientists to accelerate their efforts in advancing clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine.
The team has identified the novel virus in the fluid around the brain of two patients with brain infections of unknown cause. The virus, named CyCV-VN, was subsequently detected in an additional 26 out of 642 patients with brain infections of known and unknown causes.
The team then sequenced the entire genetic material of CyCV-VN, confirming that it represents a new species that has not been isolated before. They found that it belongs to the viral family Circoviridae, which have previously only been associated with disease in animals, including birds and pigs.
Read more: New Species of Virus Found in Patients with Brain Infections in Vietnam
Loco Lab is an ipad game designed to kids between 6 - 8 years old. They will discover how to made their own home made experiments with simple elements that we could find on the house.
You will learn how to made experiments with two friends that are two small funny rats who lives in an amazing laboratory.
There may be nothing in the clinical lab that wastes more time and is more poorly implemented and understood than hematology review criteria. Hematology is a strange animal. It doesn't lend itself to sharp black and white rules and distinctions. It's subjective, murky and sometimes frustrating because you must deal with things like: How many atypical lymphs are significant? How atypical must they be to count? Should you look at a slide with a low hemoglobin? Why? Does a pathologist need to look at a slide with macrocytosis? These, and the dozens of questions like them, are the type of nebulous questions you have to deal with daily in hematology. And most labs do a lousy job of addressing them. The result? Too much unneeded work.
For those watching the European news these first six months of 2013, there have been rapid developments in the area of traceability. Companies have started adding traceability claims prominently to their advertising, in direct appeal to consumers. And the consumers have responded by preferring products that have established chains of traceability.
Platelets may contribute to protection against bacterial infection, according to new research published today (June 16) in Nature Immunology. Scientists found that in the livers of mice, platelets collaborated with specialized white blood cells to capture and engulf blood-borne bacteria, and this interaction helped protect the animals from bacterial infection.
Read more: Platelets Help Tackle Bacteria
Researchers in Canada are pinning their hopes on advanced mathematics in the fight against cancer, using sophisticated models to enhance engineered viruses that home in on and destroy cancerous cells.
Nature Communications has just published a paper authored by Ottawa researchers that deals with the use of oncolytic viruses, a fairly new method that involves the engineering of intentionally infecting and killing tumors in the human body while avoiding harm to healthy tissue.
Read more: Canadian scientists use math to kill cancer
Vitamin D deficiency might be a key player in hepatitis B (HBV) replication, researchers reported.
Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicted high levels of the virus and vice versa, said Christian Lange, MD, and colleagues at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Hospital in Frankfurt, Germany, in a retrospective case-control study.
A simple method has been found that tells people who have become seriously ill after a tick bite once and for all whether they have bacteria in their blood.
"We study the behaviour of the bacteria directly through the microscope. We have taken thousands of pictures, and we film their movement pattern in real time or with a time lapse. This allows us to see how the bacteria enter and leave the blood cells and swim around in the blood plasma.
We are frequently asked about the relationship between HbA1c and plasma glucose levels. Many patients with diabetes mellitus now perform self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the home setting, and understanding the relationship between HbA1c and glucose can be useful in setting goals for day-to-day testing.
Naming and design of the French wine BLOOD OF GRAPES goes from common and quite obvious associations. Wine is blood of grapes, heart is its vessel. Slogan “from the heart of France” supports the whole concept as well.
A report suggesting pregnant women should "play it safe" and avoid chemicals in many common household products such as food packaging has been criticised as impractical and confusing for mothers-to-be.
The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) says women should be made aware of the sources of chemicals to minimise the possibility of harm during pregnancy, and urges them to "play it safe", despite uncertainty about chemicals' effects and the surrounding risks.
How do immune cells manage to sort through vast numbers of similar-looking proteins within the body to detect foreign invaders and fight infections.
"For immune cells, singling out foreign proteins is like looking for a needle in a haystack -- where the needle may look very much like a straw, and where some straws may also look very much like a needle," notes McGill University physics professor Paul François.