The question of whether infectious agents exist without genomes arose with the discovery and characterization of infectious agents associated with a group of diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). These diseases are rare, but always fatal, neurodegenerative disorders that afflict humans and other mammals. They are characterized by long incubation periods, spongiform changes in the brain associated with loss of neurons, and the absence of host responses. TSEs are caused by infectious proteins called prions.
The first TSE recognized was scrapie, so called because infected sheep tend to scrape their bodies on fences so much that they rub themselves raw. Scrapie has been recognized as a disease of European sheep for more than 250 years. It is endemic in some countries, for example, the United Kingdom, where it affects 0.5 to 1% of the sheep population each year.
Infectious agents with no genome